Respiratory(Lung) Disease

Respiratory (lung) diseases are very common medical conditions in the world. Millions of people both children & adults; suffers from these respiratory (lung) diseases in the India. Studies suggest that prevalence of asthma in people over 15 years of age is approx. 2.4% and of COPD in the people over 35 years of age is approx. 4.1% (INSEARCH Phase 1). Pollution, Smoking (active & passive), infections and genetics are responsible for most respiratory (lung) diseases.
Respiration is complex function of the human economy where respiratory organ system expanding and relaxing thousands of times each day to bring in oxygen and expel carbon dioxide. Respiratory (lung) diseases can result from dis-ease or dysfunction in any part of this organ system –

Trachea & Bronchial tree (airways)

Disease Presentation
Asthma Airways are inflamed and with occasional broncho-spasm causing wheezing and shortness of breath. Various allergies, infections, pollution, etc. can aggravate these symptoms.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Respiratory condition with inability to exhale normally, causing difficult breathing.
Acute bronchitis Sudden infection of the airways.
Chronic bronchitis Type of COPD with chronic productive cough.
Emphysema Type of COPD where air gets trapped in the lungs, difficulty in blowing air out.
Cystic fibrosis Genetic disorder resulting in poor clearance of mucus from the airways. Accumulated mucus may result in repeated infections.

Alveoli (air sacs)

Disease Presentation
Pneumonia & Tuberculosis Usually a bacterial form of infection.
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): Severe-sudden injury or infection-spasm to, mechanical ventilation may be required till lungs recover.
Pneumoconiosis Lungs injury by inhalation of a substance. Black lung disease by coal dust and asbestosis by asbestos dust.
Emphysema Due to damage of fragile connections between alveoli, common cause is smoking. Also affects & limits airflow.
Pulmonary edema Interstitial fluid leaks out of the small blood vessels of the lungs into the air sacs, due to cardiac failure; back pressure in the lungs' blood vessels and/or direct injury to the lung tissues.
Lung cancer Many forms, often occur in or near air sacs.


Disease Presentation
Interstitial lung disease (ILD): Includes sarcoidosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and autoimmune disease. Also affected by pneumonias & pulmonary edemas.

Blood Vessels

Disease Presentation
Pulmonary embolism Blood clot that lodges in a pulmonary artery, causing shortness of breath and low blood oxygen.
Pulmonary hypertension High blood pressure in the pulmonary arteries, can be idiopathic.

Pleura (lining between lung & chest wall)

Disease Presentation
Pneumothorax Air enters between the chest wall and the lung, collapsing the lung.
Pleural effusion Collection fluid between the chest wall and the lung.
Mesothelioma Rare cancer that forms on the pleura.

Chest Wall

Disease Presentation
Obesity hypoventilation syndrome Obesity or more weight on the chest & abdomen affects optimum chest expansion, may cause breathing problems.
Neuromuscular disorders (e.g. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis & myasthenia gravis) Dysfunctioning of nerves controlling respiratory muscles causing breathing problems.